Thursday, 17 October 2019

Create your own massage


Erotic Massage Oil - Arabian Nights
Coriander 3 drops
Frankincense 3 drops
Lime 2 drops
Rose 2 drops
Add to 25ml base oil.
From Erotic Aromatherapy by Chrissie Wildwood


Erotic Massage Oil - Tonight Josephine
Bergamot 2 drops
Jasmine 4 drops
Lavender 2 drops
Petitgrain 2 drops
Add to 25ml base oil.
From Erotic Aromatherapy by Chrissie Wildwood



Erotic Massage Oil - Titania
Bergamot 3 drops
Lavender 2 drops
Neroli 3 drops
Vetiver 1 drop
Add to 25ml base oil.
From Erotic Aromatherapy by Chrissie Wildwood


Erotic Massage Oil - Velvet Seduction
Rose 2 drops
Sandalwood 5 drops
Ylang Ylang 2 drops
Add to 25ml base oil.
From Erotic Aromatherapy by Chrissie Wildwood


Erotic Massage Oil - Eros
Coriander 3 drops
Ginger 1 drop
Sandalwood 6 drops
Add to 25ml base oil.
From Erotic Aromatherapy by Chrissie Wildwood


Erotic Massage Oil - Sultry Nights and Roses
Geranium 3 drops
Patchouli 2 drops
Rose 3 drops
Add to 25ml base oil.
From Erotic Aromatherapy by Chrissie Wildwood





Erotic Massage Oil
Clary Sage 2 drops
Geranium 1 drop
Jasmine 4 drops
Add to 25ml base oil.
From Erotic Aromatherapy by Chrissie Wildwood

Black Friday Deals 2019


Saturday, 31 August 2019

THE ORIGIN OF MARRIAGE

THE ORIGIN OF MARRIAGE

From remote antiquity we are told of kings and rulers who instituted marriage amongst their subjects. We read in ‘Mahâbhârata,’ the Indian poem, that formerly “women were unconfined, and roved about at their pleasure, independent. Though in their youthful innocence, they went astray from their husbands, they were guilty of no offence; for such was the rule in early times.” But Swêtakêtu, son of the Rishi Uddâlaka, could not bear this custom, and established the rule that thenceforward wives should remain faithful to their husbands and husbands to their wives.8 The Chinese annals recount that, “in the beginning, men differed in nothing from other animals in their way of life. As they wandered up and down in the woods, and women were in common, it happened that children never knew their fathers, but only their mothers.” The Emperor Fou-hi abolished, however, this indiscriminate intercourse of the sexes and instituted marriage.9 Again, the ancient Egyptians are stated to be indebted to Menes for this institution,10 and the Greeks to Kekrops. Originally, it is said, they had no idea of conjugal union; they gratified their desires promiscuously, and the children that sprang from these irregular connections always bore the mother’s name. But Kekrops showed the Athenians the inconvenience to society from such an abuse, and established the laws and rules9 of marriage.11 The remote Laplanders, also, sing about Njavvis and Attjis, who instituted marriage, and bound their wives by sacred oaths.12
Popular imagination prefers the clear and concrete; it does not recognize any abstract laws that rule the universe. Nothing exists without a cause, but this cause is not sought in an agglomeration of external or internal forces; it is taken to be simple and palpable, a personal being, a god or a king. Is it not natural, then, that marriage, which plays such an important part in the life of the individual, as well as in that of the people, should be ascribed to a wise and powerful ruler, or to direct divine intervention?
With notions of this kind science has nothing to do. If we want to find out the origin of marriage, we have to strike into another path, the only one which can lead to the truth, but a path which is open to him alone who regards organic nature as one continued chain, the last and most perfect link of which is man. For we can no more stop within the limits of our own species, when trying to find the root of our psychical and social life, than we can understand the physical condition of the human race without taking into consideration that of the lower animals. I must, therefore, beg the reader to follow me into a domain which many may consider out of the way, but which we must, of necessity, explore in order to discover what we seek.
It is obvious that the preservation of the progeny of the lowest animals depends mainly upon chance. In the great sub-kingdom of the Invertebrata, even the mothers are exempted from nearly all anxiety as regards their offspring. In the highest order, the Insects, the eggs are hatched by the heat of the sun, and the mother, in most cases, does not even see her young. Her care is generally limited to seeking out an appropriate place for laying the eggs, and to fastening them to some proper object and covering them, if this be necessary for their preservation. Again, to the male’s share nothing falls but the function of propagation.13
10
In the lowest classes of the Vertebrata, parental care is likewise almost unheard of. In the immense majority of species, young fishes are hatched without the assistance of their parents, and have, from the outset, to help themselves. Many Teleostei form, however, an exception; and, curiously enough, it is the male on which, in these cases, the parental duty generally devolves. In some instances he constructs a nest, and jealously guards the ova deposited in it by the female; while the male of certain species of Arius carries the ova about with him in his capacious pharynx.14 Most of the Reptiles place their eggs in a convenient and sunny spot between moss and leaves, and take no further trouble about them. But several of the larger serpents have a curious fashion of laying them in a heap, and then coiling themselves around them in a great hollow cone.15 And female Crocodiles, as also certain aquatic snakes of Cochin China, observed by Dr. Morice, carry with them even their young.16
Among the lower Vertebrata it rarely happens that both parents jointly take care of their progeny. M. Milne Edwards states, indeed, that in the Pipa, or Toad of Surinam, the male helps the female to disburthen herself of her eggs;17 and the Chelonia are known to live in pairs. “La femelle,” says M. Espinas, “vient sur les plages sablonneuses au moment de la ponte, accompagnée du mâle, et construit un nid en forme de four où la chaleur du soleil fait éclore les œufs.”18 But it may be regarded as an almost universal rule that the relations of the sexes are utterly fickle. The male and female come together in the paring time; but having satisfied their sexual instincts they part again, and have nothing more to do with one another.
The Chelonia form, with regard to their domestic habits, a transition to the Birds, as they do also from a zoological and, particularly, from an embryological point of view. In the latter class, parental affection has reached a very high degree of11 development, not only on the mother’s side, but also on the father’s. Male and female help each other to build the nest, the former generally bringing the materials, the latter doing the work. In fulfilling the numberless duties of the breeding season, both birds take a share. Incubation rests principally with the mother, but the father, as a rule, helps his companion, taking her place when she wants to leave the nest for a moment, or providing her with food and protecting her from every danger. Finally, when the duties of the breeding season are over, and the result desired is obtained, a period with new duties commences. During the first few days after hatching, most birds rarely leave their young for long, and then only to procure food for themselves and their family. In cases of great danger, both parents bravely defend their offspring. As soon as the first period of helplessness is over, and the young have grown somewhat, they are carefully taught to shift for themselves; and it is only when they are perfectly capable of so doing that they leave the nest and the parents.
There are, indeed, a few birds that from the first day of their ultra-oval existence lack all parental care; and in some species, as the ducks, it frequently happens that the male leaves family duties wholly to the female. But, as a general rule, both share prosperity and adversity. The hatching of the eggs and the chief part of the rearing duties belong to the mother,19 whilst the father acts as protector, and provides food, &c.
The relations of the sexes are thus of a very intimate character, male and female keeping together not only during the breeding season, but also after it. Nay, most birds, with the exception of those belonging to the Gallinaceous family, when pairing, do so once for all till either one or the other dies. And Dr. Brehm is so filled with admiration for their exemplary family life, that he enthusiastically declares that “real genuine marriage can only be found among birds.”20
12
This certainly cannot be said of most of the Mammals. The mother is, indeed, very ardently concerned for the welfare of her young, generally nursing them with the utmost affection, but this is by no means the case with the father. There are cases in which he acts as an enemy of his own progeny. But there are not wanting instances to the contrary, the connections between the sexes, though generally restricted to the time of the rut, being, with several species of a more durable character. This is the case with whales,21 seals,22 the hippopotamus,23 the Cervus campestris,24 gazelles,25 the Neotragus Hemprichii and other small antelopes,26 reindeer,27 the Hydromus coypus,28 squirrels,29 moles,30 the ichneumon,31 and some carnivorous animals, as a few cats and martens,32 the yaguarundi in South America,33 the Canis Brasiliensis,34 and possibly also the wolf.35 Among all these animals the sexes remain together even after the birth of the young, the male being the protector of the family.
What among lower Mammals is an exception, is among the Quadrumana a rule. The natives of Madagascar relate that in some species of the Prosimii, male and female nurse their young in common36—a statement, however, which has not yet been proved to be true. The mirikina (Nyctipithecus trivirgatus) seems, according to Rengger, to live in pairs throughout the whole year, for, whatever the season, a male and a female are always found together.37 Of the Mycetes CarayaCebus Azarae,38 and Ateles paniscus,39 single individuals are very seldom, or never, seen, whole families being generally met with. Among the Arctopitheci,40 the male parent is expressly said to assist the female in taking care of the young ones.
13
The most interesting to us are, of course, the man-like apes. Diard was told by the Malays, and he found it afterwards to be true, that the young Siamangs, when in their helpless state, are carried about by their parents, the males by the father, the females by the mother.41 Lieutenant C. de Crespigny, who was wandering in the northern part of Borneo in 1870, gives the following description of the Orang-utan: “They live in families—the male, female, and a young one. On one occasion I found a family in which were two young ones, one of them much larger than the other, and I took this as a proof that the family tie had existed for at least two seasons. They build commodious nests in the trees which form their feeding-ground, and, so far as I could observe, the nests, which are well lined with dry leaves, are only occupied by the female and young, the male passing the night in the fork of the same or another tree in the vicinity. The nests are very numerous all over the forests, for they are not occupied above a few nights, the mias (or Orang-utan) leading a roving life.”42 According to Dr. Mohnike, however, the old males generally live with the females during the rutting season only;43 and Mr. Wallace never saw two full-grown animals together. But as he sometimes found not only females, but also males, accompanied by half-grown young ones,44 we may take for granted that the offspring of the Orang-utan are not devoid of all paternal care.
More unanimous are the statements which we have regarding the Gorilla. According to Dr. Savage, they live in bands, and all his informants agree in the assertion that but one adult male is seen in every band. “It is said that when the male is first seen he gives a terrific yell that resounds far and wide through the forest.... The females and young at the first cry quickly disappear; he then approaches the enemy in great fury, pouring out his horrid cries in quick succession.”45 Again, Mr. Du Chaillu found14 “almost always one male with one female, though sometimes the old male wanders companionless;”46 and Mr. Winwood Reade states likewise that the Gorilla goes “sometimes alone, sometimes accompanied by his female and young one.”47 The same traveller was told that, when a family of Gorillas ascend a tree and eat a certain fruit, the old father remains seated at the foot of the tree. And when the female is pregnant, he builds a rude nest, usually about fifteen or twenty feet from the ground; here she is delivered, and the nest is then abandoned.48
For more recent information about the Gorilla we are indebted to Herr von Koppenfells. He states that the male spends the night crouching at the foot of the tree, against which he places his back, and thus protects the female and their young, which are in the nest above, from the nocturnal attacks of leopards. Once he observed a male and female with two young ones of different ages, the elder being perhaps about six years old, the younger about one.49
When all these statements are compared, it is impossible to doubt that the Gorilla lives in families, the male parent being in the habit of building the nest and protecting the family. And the same is the case with the Chimpanzee. According to Dr. Savage, “it is not unusual to see ‘the old folks’ sitting under a tree regaling themselves with fruit and friendly chat, while ‘their children’ are leaping around them and swinging from branch to branch in boisterous merriment.”50 And Herr von Koppenfells assures us that the Chimpanzee, like the Gorilla, builds a nest for the young and female on a forked branch, the male himself spending the night lower down in the tree.51
Passing from the highest monkeys to the savage and barbarous races of man, we meet with the same phenomenon. With the exception of a few cases in which certain tribes are asserted to live together promiscuously—almost all of which15 assertions I shall prove further on to be groundless—travellers unanimously agree that in the human race the relations of the sexes are, as a rule, of a more or less durable character. The family consisting of father, mother, and offspring, is a universal institution, whether founded on a monogamous, polygynous, or polyandrous marriage. And, as among the lower animals having the same habit, it is to the mother that the immediate care of the children chiefly belongs, while the father is the protector and guardian of the family. Man in the savage state is generally supposed to be rather indifferent to the welfare of his wife and children, and this is really often the case, especially if he be compared with civilized man. But the simplest paternal duties are, nevertheless, universally recognized. If he does nothing else, the father builds the habitation, and employs himself in the chase and in war.
Thus, among the North American Indians, it was considered disgraceful for a man to have more wives than he was able to maintain.52 Mr. Powers says that among the Patwin, a Californian tribe which ranks among the lowest in the world, “the sentiment that the men are bound to support the women—that is to furnish the supplies—is stronger even than among us.”53 Among the Iroquois it was the office of the husband “to make a mat, to repair the cabin of his wife, or to construct a new one.” The product of his hunting expeditions, during the first year of marriage, belonged of right to his wife, and afterwards he shared it equally with her, whether she remained in the village, or accompanied him to the chase.54 Azara states that among the Charruas of South America, “du moment où un homme se marie, il forme une famille à part et travaille pour la nourrir;”55 and among the Fuegians, according to Admiral Fitzroy, “as soon as a youth is able to maintain a wife, by his exertions in fishing or bird-catching, he obtains the consent of her relations.”56 Again, among the16 utterly rude Botocudos, whose girls are married very young, remaining in the house of the father till the age of puberty, the husband is even then obliged to maintain his wife, though living apart from her.57
To judge from the recent account of Herr Lumholtz, the paternal duties seemed to be scarcely recognized by the natives of Queensland.58 But with reference to the Kurnai in South Australia, Mr. Howitt states that “the man has to provide for his family with the assistance of his wife. His share is to hunt for their support, and to fight for their protection.” As a Kurnai once said to him, “A man hunts, spears fish, fights, and sits about.”59 And in the Encounter Bay tribe the paternal care is considered so indispensable, that, if the father dies before a child is born, the child is put to death by the mother, as there is no longer any one to provide for it.60
Among the cannibals of New Britain, the chiefs have to see that the families of the warriors are properly maintained.61 As regards the Tonga Islanders, Martin remarks, “A married woman is one who cohabits with a man, and lives under his roof and protection;”62 and in Samoa, according to Mr. Pritchard, “whatever intercourse may take place between the sexes, a woman does not become a man’s wife unless the latter take her to his own house.”63 Among the Maoris, says Mr. Johnston, “the mission of woman was to increase and multiply; that of man to defend his home.”64 In Radack, even natural children are received by the father into his house, as soon as they are able to walk.65
The Rev. D. Macdonald states that, in some African tribes,17 “a father has to fast after the birth of his child, or take some such method of showing that he recognizes that he as well as the mother should take care of the young stranger.”66 Certain Africans will not even go on any warlike expedition when they have a young child;67 and the South American Guaranies, while their wives are pregnant do not risk their lives in hunting wild beasts.68 In Lado the bridegroom has to assure his father-in-law three times that he will protect his wife, calling the people present to witness.69 And among the Touaregs, according to Dr. Chavanne, a man who deserts his wife is blamed, as he has taken upon himself the obligation of maintaining her.70
The wretched Rock Veddahs in Ceylon, according to Sir J. Emerson Tennent, “acknowledge the marital obligation and the duty of supporting their own families.”71 Among the Maldivians, “although a man is allowed four wives at one time, it is only on condition of his being able to support them.”72 The Nagas are not permitted to marry until they are able to set up house on their own account.73 The Nairs, we are told, consider it a husband’s duty to provide his wife with food, clothing, and ornaments;74 and almost the same is said by Dr. Schwaner with reference to the tribes of the Barito district, in the south-east part of Borneo.75 A Burmese woman can demand a divorce, if her husband is not able to maintain her properly.76 Among the Mohammedans, the maintenance of the children devolves so exclusively on the father, that the mother is even entitled to claim wages for nursing them.77 And among the Romans, manus implied not only the wife’s subordination to the husband, but also the husband’s obligation to protect the wife.78
18
The father’s place in the family being that of a supporter and protector, a man is often not permitted to marry until he has given some proof of his ability to fulfil these duties.
The Koyúkuns believe that a youth who marries before he has killed a deer will have no children.79 The aborigines of Pennsylvania considered it a shame for a boy to think of a wife before having given some proof of his manhood.80 Among the wild Indians of British Guiana, says Mr. Im Thurn, before a man is allowed to choose a wife he must prove that he can do a man’s work and is able to support himself and his family.81 Among the Dyaks of Borneo,82 the Nagas of Upper Assam,83 and the Alfura of Ceram,84 no one can marry unless he has in his possession a certain number of heads. The Karmanians, according to Strabo, were considered marriageable only after having killed an enemy.85 The desire of a Galla warrior is to deprive the enemy of his genitals, the possession of such a trophy being a necessary preliminary to marriage.86 Among the Bechuana and Kafir tribes south of the Zambesi, the youth is not allowed to take a wife until he has killed a rhinoceros.87 In the Marianne Group, the suitor had to give proof of his bodily strength and skill.88 And among the Arabs of Upper Egypt, the man must undergo an ordeal of whipping by the relations of his bride in order to test his courage. If he wishes to be considered worth having, he must receive the chastisement, which is sometimes exceedingly severe, with an expression of enjoyment.89
The idea that a man is bound to maintain his family is, indeed, so closely connected with that of marriage and father19hood, that sometimes even repudiated wives with their children are, at least to a certain extent, supported by their former husbands. This is the case among the Chukchi of North-Western Asia,90 the Basutos in Southern Africa,91 and the Munda Kols in Chota Nagpore.92 Further, a wife frequently enjoys her husband’s protection even after sexual relations have been broken off. And upon his death, the obligation of maintaining her and her children devolves on his heirs, the wide-spread custom of a man marrying the widow of his deceased brother being, as we shall see in a subsequent chapter, not only a privilege belonging to the man, but, among several peoples, even a duty. We may thus take for granted that in the human race, at least at its present stage, the father has to perform the same function as in other animal species, where the connections between the sexes last longer than the sexual desire.

In encyclopedical and philosophical works we meet with several different definitions of the word marriage. Most of these definitions are, however, of a merely juridical or ethical nature, comprehending either what is required to make the union legal,93 or what, in the eye of an idealist, the union ought to be.94 But it is scarcely necessary to say how far I am here from using the word in either of these senses. It is the natural history of human marriage that is the object of this treatise; and, from a scientific point of view, I think there is but one definition which may claim to be generally admitted, that, namely, according to which marriage is nothing else than a more or less durable connection between male and female, lasting beyond the mere act of propagation till after20 the birth of the offspring. This definition is wide enough to include all others hitherto given, and narrow enough to exclude those wholly loose connections which by usage are never honoured with the name of marriage. It implies not only sexual relations, but also living together, as is set forth in the proverb of the Middle Ages, “Boire, manger, coucher ensemble est mariage, ce me semble.”95 And, though, rather vague, which is a matter of course, it has the advantage of comprehending in one notion phenomena essentially similar and having a common origin.
Thus, as appears from the preceding investigation, the first traces of marriage are found among the Chelonia. With the Birds it is an almost universal institution, whilst, among the Mammals, it is restricted to certain species only. We observed, however, that it occurs, as a rule, among the monkeys, especially the anthropomorphous apes as well as in the races of men. Is it probable, then, that marriage was transmitted to man from some ape-like ancestor, and that there never was a time when it did not occur in the human race? These questions cannot be answered before we have found out the cause to which it owes its origin.
It is obvious that where the generative power is restricted to a certain season, it cannot be the sexual instinct that keeps male and female together for months or years. Nor is there any other egoistic motive that could probably account for this habit. Considering that the union lasts till after the birth of the offspring, and considering the care taken of this by the father, we may assume that the prolonged union of the sexes is, in some way or other connected with parental duties. I am, indeed, strongly of opinion that the tie which joins male and female is an instinct developed through the powerful influence of natural selection. It is evident that, when the father helps to protect the offspring, the species is better able to subsist in the struggle for existence than it would be if this obligation entirely devolved on the mother. Paternal affection and the instinct which causes male and female to form somewhat durable alliances, are thus useful mental dispositions21 which, in all probability, have been acquired through the survival of the fittest.
But how, then, can it be that among most animals the father never concerns himself about his progeny? The answer is not difficult to find. Marriage is only one of many means by which a species is enabled to subsist. Where parental care is lacking, we may be sure to find compensation for it in some other way. Among the Invertebrata, Fishes, and Reptiles, both parents are generally quite indifferent as to their progeny. An immense proportion of the progeny therefore succumb before reaching maturity; but the number of eggs laid is proportionate to the number of those lost, and the species is preserved nevertheless. If every grain of roe, spawned by the female fishes, were fecundated and hatched, the sea would not be large enough to hold all the creatures resulting from them. The eggs of Reptiles need no maternal care, the embryo being developed by the heat of the sun; and their young are from the outset able to help themselves, leading the same life as the adults. Among Birds, on the other hand, parental care is an absolute necessity. Equal and continual warmth is the first requirement for the development of the embryo and the preservation of the young ones. For this the mother almost always wants the assistance of the father, who provides her with necessaries, and sometimes relieves her of the brooding. Among Mammals, the young can never do without the mother at the tenderest age, but the father’s aid is generally by no means indispensable. In some species, as the walrus,96 the elephant,97 the Bos americanus,98 and the bat,99 there seems to be a rather curious substitute for paternal protection, the females, together with their young ones, collecting in large herds or flocks apart from the males. Again, as to the marriage of the Primates, it is, I think, very probably due to the small number of young, the female bringing forth but one at a time; and, among the highest apes, as in man, also to the long period of infancy.100 Perhaps,22 too, the defective family life of the Orang-utan, compared with that of the Gorilla and Chimpanzee, depends upon the fewer dangers to which this animal is exposed. For “except man,” Dr. Mohnike says, “the Orang-utan in Borneo has no enemy of equal strength.”101 In short, the factors which the existence of a species depends upon, as the number of the progeny, their ability to help themselves when young, maternal care, marriage, &c., vary indefinitely in different species. But in those that do not succumb, all these factors are more or less proportionate to each other, the product always being the maintenance of the species.
Marriage and family are thus intimately connected with each other: it is for the benefit of the young that male and female continue to live together. Marriage is therefore rooted in family, rather than family in marriage. There are also many peoples among whom true conjugal life does not begin before a child is born, and others who consider that the birth of a child out of wedlock makes it obligatory for the parents to marry. Among the Eastern Greenlanders102 and the Fuegians,103 marriage is not regarded as complete till the woman has become a mother. Among the Shawanese104 and Abipones,105 the wife very often remains at her father’s house till she has a child. Among the Khyens, the Ainos of Yesso, and one of the aboriginal tribes of China, the husband goes to live with his wife at her father’s house, and never takes her away till after the birth of a child.106 In Circassia, the bride and bridegroom are kept apart until the first child is born;107 and among the Bedouins of Mount Sinai, a wife never enters her husband’s tent until she becomes far advanced in pregnancy.108 Among the Baele, the wife remains with her parents until she becomes a mother, and if this does not happen, she stays there for ever, the husband getting back what he has23 paid for her.109 In Siam, a wife does not receive her marriage portion before having given birth to a child;110 while among the Atkha Aleuts, according to Erman, a husband does not pay the purchase sum before he has become a father.111 Again, the Badagas in Southern India have two marriage ceremonies, the second of which does not take place till there is some indication that the pair are to have a family; and if there is no appearance of this, the couple not uncommonly separate.112 Dr. Bérenger-Féraud states that, among the Wolofs in Senegambia, “ce n’est que lorsque les signes de la grossesse sont irrécusables chez la fiancée, quelquefois même ce n’est qu’après la naissance d’un ou plusieurs enfants, que la cérémonie du mariage proprement dit s’accomplit.”113 And the Igorrotes of Luzon consider no engagement binding until the woman has become pregnant.114
On the other hand, Emin Pasha tells us that, among the Mádi in Central Africa, “should a girl become pregnant, the youth who has been her companion is bound to marry her, and to pay to her father the customary price of a bride.”115 Burton reports a similar custom as prevailing among peoples dwelling to the south of the equator.116 Among many of the wild tribes of Borneo, there is almost unrestrained intercourse between the youth of both sexes; but, if pregnancy ensue, marriage is regarded as necessary.117 The same, as I am informed by Dr. A. Bunker, is the case with some Karen tribes in Burma. In Tahiti, according to Cook, the father might24 kill his natural child, but if he suffered it to live, the parties were considered to be in the married state.118 Among the Tipperahs of the Chittagong Hills,119 as well as the peasants of the Ukraine,120 a seducer is bound to marry the girl, should she become pregnant. Again, Mr.Powers informs us that, among the Californian Wintun, if a wife is abandoned when she has a young child, she is justified by her friends in destroying it on the ground that it has no supporter.121 And among the Creeks, a young woman that becomes pregnant by a man whom she had expected to marry, and is disappointed, is allowed the same privilege.122
It might, however, be supposed that, in man, the prolonged union of the sexes is due to another cause besides the offspring’s want of parental care, i.e., to the fact that the sexual instinct is not restricted to any particular season, but endures throughout the whole year. “That which distinguishes man from the beast,” Beaumarchais says, “is drinking without being thirsty, and making love at all seasons.” But in the next chapter, I shall endeavour to show that this is probably not quite correct, so far as our earliest human or semi-human ancestors are concerned.

Wednesday, 10 July 2019

If you want self respect:

If you want self respect:

Don’t make a fool of yourself for other people’s amusement if you want self-respect. Don’t do it if you want the respect of others. Don’t play the fool if you want the respect of God. It is better not to say anything at all rather than pretend to be something you are not.

Tuesday, 2 July 2019

The Canterbury and Whitstable Railway; The first railway in Britain

The Canterbury and Whitstable Railway, sometimes referred to colloquially as the Crab and Winkle Line, was an early British railway that opened in 1830 between Canterbury and Whitstable in the county of Kent, England.

Early history

There are a number of other claimants to the title "first railway in Britain", including the Middleton Railway, the Swansea and Mumbles Railway and the Surrey Iron Railway amongst others.
Samuel Lewis in his 'A Topographical Dictionary of England' in 1848, called it the first railway in South of England.
From the beginning, the 1830 Canterbury and Whitstable Railway was a public railway, intended for passengers as well as freight. Indeed, the world's first season ticket was issued for use on the line in 1834, to take Canterbury passengers to the Whitstable beaches for the summer season. Unlike the Liverpool and Manchester Railway which opened four months later, it used cable haulage by stationary steam engines over much of its length, with steam locomotives restricted to the level stretch.
Until the early nineteenth century Canterbury's line of supply for goods had been along the River Stour which flows to Pegwell Bay, near Ramsgate on the eastern cost of Kent. Although this is only seventeen miles as the crow flies, the meandering river journey is around seventy miles. The river was continually silting up, and the cost of dredging such a length was prohibitive. Although turnpikes had been built, four or five carts were needed to carry the load of a single barge.
Whitstable, on the coast about seven miles due north, was at that time a small fishing village and port with a trade in iron pyrites from the Isle of Sheppey. The idea for the line came from William James who surveyed the route and produced plans for improving the harbour. The immediate problem was that the land between Whitstable and Canterbury rose to a height of two hundred feet (70m), and railway haulage on steep gradients was technically very difficult at that time. The only alternative would have been a much longer route through Sturry, Herne and Swalecliffe and land acquisition would have been a major cost.
Accordingly the direct route was chosen with three steep gradients, two of them to be worked by ropes from stationary steam engines. Leaving Canterbury, there was a steep incline to near the top of Tyler Hill, followed by an 828 yards (757 m) tunnel, then a descent through Clowes Wood to Bogshole Brook. From there the final two miles were substantially level apart from a short incline down to Whitstable. The line received its Act of Parliament in 1825. Construction began in 1828 with George Stephenson as the engineer, with the assistance of John Dixon and Joseph Locke. The line cost far more than predicted and the promoters returned to Parliament three more times to obtain authorisation for the raising of additional funds. The construction of Whitstable Harbour, under the direction of Thomas Telford, was completed in 1832.
The line finally opened on 3 May 1830, with a single track throughout and passing loops at Clowes Wood and the entrance to Tyler Hill tunnel. The track consisted of fifteen foot fish-bellied iron rails on wooden sleepers at three foot intervals, the more usual alternative of stone blocks being considered too expensive. Initially Stephenson had recommended the use of stationary engines for the three inclines, with horses for the level sections. However the promoters insisted on use of a locomotive for the least difficult incline, and Invicta was procured from Robert Stephenson and Company, the twentieth they had produced, and it was brought to Whitstable by sea. Unfortunately the short gradient from Whitstable proved too much for it, and a third stationary engine was installed in 1832.

Canterbury and Whitstable Railway, shown with other railway lines in Kent
The line was visited by Isambard Kingdom Brunel in 1835. The purpose of his visit was to conduct some experiments in order to silence some of the criticism he had received in relation to his proposals for the Great Western Railway, particularly the perceived problems of working a tunnel on a steep gradient, which Brunel wished to do at Box Tunnel.
Also in 1835, the "Invicta" was modified in order to improve its performance. The modification was unsuccessful and led to the locomotive being taken out of service, and trains being hauled only by the stationary engines. The C&WR tried to sell the "Invicta" in 1839 in order to clear some of its debts, but no buyers were found. The "Invicta" was later given to the Canterbury City Corporation and for many years stood on a plinth in the Dane John Gardens beside the Riding Gate. Invicta is currently on display at Canterbury Museum, cosmetically restored.

Tuesday, 25 June 2019

SUNDRY BRIEF ITEMS OF INTEREST. Correct as of 1884

Quiet hours are short posts only, perfect for early morning or late night reading/ Watching.

SUNDRY BRIEF ITEMS OF INTEREST. Correct as of 1884

If you ever get caught by accident on a game show or quiz. The below items may be of some use. Or just as likely, you will never need the below information in your average 31 years of life.
In 1492 America was discovered.
In 1848 gold was found in California.
Invention of telescopes, 1590.
Elias Howe, Jr., invented sewing machines, in 1846.
In 1839 envelopes came into use.
Steel pens first made in 1830.
The first watch was constructed in 1476.
First manufacture of sulphur matches in 1829.
Glass windows introduced into England in the eighth century.
First coaches introduced into England in 1569.
In 1545 needles of the modern style first came into use.
In 1527 Albert Durer first engraved on wood.
1559 saw knives introduced into England.
In the same year wheeled carriages were first used in France.
In 1588 the first newspaper appeared in England.
In 1629 the first printing press was brought to America.
The first newspaper advertisement appeared in 1652.
England sent the first steam engine to this continent in 1703.
The first steamboat in the United States ascended the Hudson in 1807.
Locomotive first used in the United States in 1830.
First horse railroad constructed in 1827.
In 1830 the first iron steamship was built.
Coal oil first used for illuminating purposes in 1836.
Looms introduced as a substitute for spinning wheels in 1776.
The velocity of a severe storm is 36 miles an hour; that of a hurricane, 80 miles an hour.
National ensign of the United States formally adopted by Congress in 1777.
A square acre is a trifle less than 209 feet each way.
Six hundred and forty acres make a square mile.
A "hand" (employed in measuring horses' height) is four inches.
A span is 10-7/8 inches.
Six hundred pounds make a barrel of rice.
One hundred and ninety-six pounds make a barrel of flour.
Two hundred pounds make a barrel of pork.
Fifty-six pounds make a firkin of butter.
The number of languages is 2,750.
The average duration of human life is 31 years.

Tuesday, 18 June 2019

about personal trainers: Seducing your Personal Trainer

about personal trainers: Seducing your Personal Trainer: Seducing your Personal Trainer during your Training session  Used this to great effect with my personal training sessions with MGTfit ;)...

Wednesday, 17 April 2019

Boost your career prospects


How to: Boost your social and career prospects; by remembering a person's name


Nothing can be more awkward for you, when you forget a person's name. But when you do remember, the other person feels like a happy little puppy. People love to hear their own name, and the fact that you remembered it makes even the most negative person happy. So boost your career and social relationships by remembering a person's name.

Discover essential tips for the common job interview

Thursday, 4 April 2019

3 quick lessons from watching Jerry Springer.

 

1. Victims believe anything.

If you tell a someone - a potential victim something they want to hear, no matter how inappropriate, unbelievable, unlikely it is, nine times out of ten, that person believes it. It not that they are dumb, though some on JS are amusingly stupid, it is more of a case that they want to believe it, they convince themselves its true. Like you would believe it if your girlfriend told you that is normal and happens all the time, or that size doesn't matter. When a player tells his mark "I miss you", "I want to be with you", "I love you" it's not Byron, but it doesn't need to be. People tend to create their own reality, and this is why, though it may be unethical, these lies work. Just be careful of the fallout.
How do I improve my local SEO (UK)

2. Men are in their own reality.

"I work all day", "I provide for my kids" etc etc. It usually the same defence from guys when they discover their wives cheating. Even though the viewer has sat through 10 minutes of the wife complaining she doesn't get affection, love, support or understanding from her man, so she went and got it from his brother, dad, uncle, and cousin. Not at any point has she said, "You don't work enough!!" "I am sick of all the attention and love you give me!" That's why guys have a bad rep for not listening, it couldn't be any clearer to the viewer, but the guy just can't seem to get his redneck head round it.
There is also another side to this one, Men cheat because a girl will need too much support, love, affection etc. It's way too much pressure, and when the kitchen gets too hot, the guy shags your sister, mother, stripper. Even when they look like pigs, seriously, looks aren't that important to some men.
"Well, I am under a little pressure at home... Come here Chubby Chops!"

3. If anyone is cheating, its with someone you know.

Yep, your brother, sister, uncle, family pet; if you know them they are probably shagging your partner, like a giant rabbit on crystal meth. This happens with unsurprising frequency, so if you are suspicious, check out the people you know, the only exception to this rule might be their boss, but this is usually highlighted by random work patterns, their boss getting out of your bed etc. There is no real mystery behind this, it's just down to opportunity. They are around them more often, so they are around when temptation and chances are high. Oh, and if a long-lost relative comes into the picture, eye them with the same suspicion, family love and attraction get all sorts of mixed up in these situations and that's how you get on the next Jerry Springer Show.
If your going to cheat - get paid to do it: PayDay Loan or Quick Money Manchester

Saturday, 2 March 2019

Improve Sexless Marriage

Ideas for Costumes and Role Plays to Spice up your Sex & Love Life


You can bring your love life to new exotic heights with a costume and some role play. Below we will show you some simple ideas for costumes and role plays that will spice up your love life and take your sex to new levels. If you are unsure or nervous don’t be, what girl doesn’t like to dress up? You can live your great fantasies and act out parts of our great history with a saucy twist! And your partner will definitely appreciate it, I have regularly been a naughty angel with Mark the Evangelist. Follow the below instructions and not only will you spice up your love life, but you can also broaden your knowledge. Research items from the below lists, and then build a complete world around that costume or role play, build a mental image of what you look like, when you see yourself in costume really feel like your new character, what is your life like? What has led you to this moment? Create the memories, the ideals in your mind, create the sounds and smells in your mind.
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APPLIED EUGENICS: CHAPTER XI! ! !THE IMPROVEMENT OF SEXUAL SELECTION...

APPLIED EUGENICS: CHAPTER XI! ! !THE IMPROVEMENT OF SEXUAL SELECTION...:   CHAPTER XI! ! !THE IMPROVEMENT OF SEXUAL SELECTION! ! "Love is blind" and "Marriage is a lottery,&...

Wednesday, 13 February 2019

Success

"They never fail who die in a great cause."
It is true that every one of us can be successful. Though no fairy god mother, no device or book can give us success. We must win them ourselves. It is not true that we can all be Prime Ministers, that we can all have mansions and sports cars. No more mischievous teaching has ever been spread throughout the world than the idea that money means happiness. Having money only releases one from the worry of not having it, but few rich people in the world will tell you they became rich without sleepless nights!

Read More...

Saturday, 2 February 2019

ways to boost your Instagram Followers

Grow your Instagram followers organically – the principle works with all major social media platforms too
Read more

Wednesday, 16 January 2019

GameOver Zeus and CryptoLocker

These are very malicious viruses and it is important to act now to protect your files.
Go to one of the links to internet security software companies at the bottom of this post to download a free tool to scan for Gameover Zeus and CryptoLocker, and remove them from your computer. We advise you do this even if you haven’t had a communication from your ISP or opened any attachments etc. Better to be 100% safe.
Follow these steps before and after scanning, in addition to regularly scanning for Viruses:
  • Do not open attachments in emails unless you are 100% certain that they are authentic. 
  • Make sure your internet security software is up-to-date and switched on at all times. 
  •  Make sure your Windows operating system has the latest Microsoft updates applied. These normally include the latest security precautions. 
  •  Make sure your software programs have the latest manufacturers’ updates applied. These normally include the latest security precautions. 
  •  Make sure all of your files including documents, photos music and bookmarks are backed up and readily available in case you are no longer able to access them on your computer. 
  •  Never store passwords on your computer in case they are accessed by Gameover Zeus or another aggressive malware program.
Scan for and remove Gameover Zeus malware and CryptoLocker software
Free tools have been specially developed and made available to you by a number of internet security software companies. You can use any of these tools regardless of the make of internet security software you normally use.
Symantec
F-Secure
F-Secure Online scanner (Windows Vista, 7 and 8)
http://www.f-secure.com/en/web/home_global/online-scanner
F-Secure Rescue CD (Windows XP systems)
http://www.f-secure.com/en/web/labs_global/removal-tools/-/carousel/view/142
Kaspersky
http://support.kaspersky.com/8005 (WindowsUnlocker utility for if your computer is infected with CryptoLocker)
Sophos
http://www.sophos.com/VirusRemoval (Windows XP (SP2) and above)
Heimdal Security
http://goz.heimdalsecurity.com/ (Microsoft Windows XP, Vista, 7, 8 and 8.1.)
Microsoft 
http://www.microsoft.com/security/scanner/en-us/default.aspx Microsoft Safety Scanner (Windows 8.1, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP)
McAfee
Trend Micro
www.trendmicro.com/threatdetector
(Windows XP, Vista, Windows, Windows 8/8.1, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, and Windows Server 2008 R2).

Post provided by: Mac OSX & Windows Tech Blog